Ladies and Gentlemen:
Welcome to the Great Wall . Starting out in the east on the banks of the Yale River in Leaning Province, the Wall stretches westwards for 12,700 kilometers to Jiayuguan in the Gobi desert, thus known as the Ten Thousand Li Wall in China. The Wall climbs up and down, twists and turns along the ridges of the Yanshan and Yinshan Mountain Chains through five provinces——Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Gansu and two autonomous regions——Ningxia and Inner Mongolia, binding the northern China together.
Historical records trace the construction of the origin of the Wall to defensive fortification back to the year 656 B.C. during the reign of King Cheng of the States of Chu. Its construction continued throughout the Warring States period in the fifth Century B.C. Walls, then, was built separately by these ducal states to ward off such harassments. Later in 221 B.C. The most extensive reinforcements and renovations were carried out in the Ming Dynasty （1368——1644） when altogether 18 lengthy stretches were reinforced with bricks and rocks. it is mostly the Ming Dynasty Wall that visitors see today.
The Great Wall is divided into two sections, the east and west, with Shanxi Province as the dividing line. The west part is a rammed earth construction, about 5.3 meters high on average. In the eastern part, the core of the Wall is rammed earth as well, but the outer shell is reinforced with bricks and rocks. The most imposing and best preserved sections of the Great Wall are at Badaling and Mutianyu, not far from Beijing and both are open to visitors.
The Wall of those sections is 7.8 meters high and 6.5 meters wide at its base, narrowing to 5.8 meters on the ramparts, wide enough for five horses to gallop abreast. Two-storied watch-towers are built at approximately 400-meters internals. The top stories of the watch-tower were designed for observing enemy movements, while the first was used for storing grain, fodder, military equipment and gunpowder as well as for quartering garrison soldiers. The highest watch-tower at Badaling standing on a hill-top, is reached only after a steep climb, like “climbing a ladder to heaven”.
There stand 14 major passes （Guan, in Chinese） at places of strategic importance along the Great Wall, the most important being Shanghaiguan and Jiayuguan. Yet the most impressive one is Juyongguan, about 50 kilometers northwest of Beijing.
Known as “Tian Xia Di YI Guan” （The First Pass Under Heaven）， (www.fwsir.com)Shanghaiguan Pass is situated between two sheer cliffs forming a neck connecting north China with the northeast. It had been, therefore, a key junction contested by all strategists and many famous battles were fought here. It was the gate of Shanghaiguan that the Ming general Wu Sangui opened to the Manchu army to suppress the peasant rebellion led by Li Zicheng and so surrendered the whole Ming empire to the Manchus, leading to the foundation of the Qing Dynasty. （1644-1911）
As a cultural heritage, the Wall belongs not only to China but to the world. The Venice charter says: “Historical and cultural architecture not only includes the individual architectural works, but also the urban or rural environment that witnessed certain civilizations, significant social developments or historical events.” The Great Wall is the largest of such historical and cultural architecture, and that is why it continues to be so attractive to people all over the world. In 1987, the Wall was listed by UNESCO as a world cultural heritage site.
In the north of China， there lies a 6，700-kilometer-long （4，161-mile-long） ancient wall. Now well-known as the Great Wall of China， it starts at the Jiayuguan Pass of Gansu Province in the west and ends at the Shanhaiguan Pass of Hebei Province in the east. As one of the Eight Wonders in the world， the Great Wall of China has become the symbol of the Chinese nation and its culture.
Lots of beautiful legends and stories about the Great Wall took place following along the construction， and since that time these stories have spread around the country. Those that happened during construction are abundant， such as Meng Jiangnu's story and the legend of the Jiayuguan Pass. Meng Jiangnu's story is the most famous and widely spread of all the legends about the Great Wall. The story happened during the Qin Dynasty （221BC-206BC）。 It tells of how Meng Jiangnu's bitter weeping made a section of the Great Wall collapse. Meng Jiangnu's husband Fan Qiliang was caught by federal officials and sent to build the Great Wall. Meng Jiangnu heard nothing from him after his departure， so she set out to look for him. Unfortunately， by the time she reached the great wall， she discovered that her husband had already died. Hearing the bad news， she cried her heart out. Her howl caused the collapse of a part of the Great Wall. This story indicates that the Great Wall is the production of tens of thousands of Chinese commoners.
Another legend about the Jiayuguan Pass tells of a workman named Yi Kaizhan in the Ming Dynasty （1368BC-1644BC） who was proficient in arithmetic. He calculated that it would need 99，999 bricks to build the Jiayuguan Pass. The supervisor did not believe him and said if they miscalculated by even one brick， then all the workmen would be punished to do hard work for three years. After the completion of the project， one brick was left behind the Xiwong city gate. The supervisor was happy at the sight of the brick and ready to punish them. However Yi Kaizhan said with deliberation that the brick was put there by a supernatural being to fix the wall. A tiny move would cause the collapse of the wall. Therefore the brick was kept there and never moved. It can still be found there today on the tower of the Jiayuguan Pass.
In addition to the above-mentioned stories about the construction of the Great Wall， there are also plenty of stories about current scenic spots. A famous one is the legend of the Beacon Tower. This story happened during the Western Zhou Dynasty （11th century BC-711 BC）。 King You had a queen named Bao Si， who was very pretty. King You liked her very much， however Bao Si never smiled. An official gave a suggestion that setting the beacon tower on fire would frighten the King's subjects， and might make the queen smile. King You liked the idea. The subjects were fooled and Bao Si smiled at the sight of the chaos. Later enemies invaded Western Zhou， King You set the beacon tower on fire to ask for help. No subjects came to help because they had been fooled once before. Thus， King Zhou was killed by the enemy and Western Zhou came to an end.
Beautiful stories and legends about the Great Wall help to keep alive Chinese history and culture. In each dynasty after the building of the Great Wall， many more stories were created and spread.
Hello,everyone!Today we'll visit Suizhong Jiumenkou Waterborne Great Wall which is the first world cultural helitage in Northeast China.Suizhong is the hometown of the first chinese astronaut-杨利伟。There is a plaque on the western Gate which writes “The First Pass of Jingdong” that can be compared with “The First Pass Under Heaven”.
Now,please follow me to get off the coach.Remember to bring your belongings.Let's visit together.
The Great Wall spends 4 years in restoring,the progect finished in 1989.The holy virtue tablet stands here to express thanks to those who provide help.The words on the face of the tablet are written by Deng Xiaoping.On the tablet there is also a brief introduction of Jiumenkou Great Wall.
Look at the huge stone bridge arcoss the Jiumen Hekou.Each water Gate is 5m wide ,7m high .Its construction is unique and spectacular.The architectural style and military defense equipment are rare and different from others.Its main character is that it can cut the water and revolve the mountain .The rampart is solid,orderly and kept well through hell and high tide.
Come to the siege with two functions.First,watch the prisoners.Second,shoot at the coming enemy.It also witnessed many battles.
OK!Now,our turip has finished.