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英语议论文的写作方法与技巧指导

2020-04-21

  一、议论文的文体特点和写作要求

英语议论文的写作方法与技巧指导

  英语议论文同中文议论文一样也是以议论的方式,通过摆事实、讲道理来阐述自己观点的一种文体。高中英语议论文是一种限制性的写作, 其论点、论据、论证都必须十分明确,学生必须结合题目要求来阐述相关观点。

  议论文的结构可分为三个部分:1、引言段引出一个令人关注的问题或明白地亮出自己的观点,如提倡什么,支持什么,反对什么。 2、主体段对提出的问题进行分析、推论、并运用归纳法、演绎法和类比法等进行论证,取得以理服人的效果。3、结论段可以用两三句话来结束文章,同时要注意重申论点,与引言段呼应,但不能照搬原话。务必做到论点明确、要点齐全、论证严密、结构严谨、层次分明、首尾呼应。

  二、议论文的写作方法与技巧

  一)、审好题

  人们常说:“磨刀不误砍柴功”。审题是写作的开始,是写好作文的前提条件,“好的开始是成功的一半”,议论文写作也不例外。只有明确题目要求,确立观点,确定论证方法及全文段落安排,才可能成功写出一篇好的议论文。如果写偏了题,再精心的构思、再好的.语言表达也是枉然。审题主要包括六个方面:一是判断议论文所属类型。英语议论文根据命题特点,从形式上来看可分为如下类型: ①“一分为二”的观点。如:“轿车大量进入家庭后,对家庭、环境、经济可能产生的影响”。②“两者选一”的观点。如:“乘火车还是乘飞机”。③“我认为……”型,如:“你对课外阅读的看法”。④“怎样……(how to)”型,如:“怎样克服学习中碰到的困难”。⑤ 图表作文,通过阅读图表中的数字与项目得出一个结论或形成一种看法(杨家贵,20xx)。二是确立该文的论点或作者须持的观点,以及支撑论点的道理和事实。三是确定全文所包括的要点。四是确定段落数及每段适用的连接词、过渡句,使文章连接紧凑、过渡自然、层次分明。五是选择全文主要时态及各段适用的其它时态。六是判断该文的格式,是书信还是短文。审题完毕,随即列出提纲。

  二)、注重主题句的设置

  主题句又叫中心句(topic sentence),是段落的论点,限制段落中议论的范围,是整个段落的纲领。主题句必须要正确,要明确表明作者赞成什么,反对什么。主题句在一篇百来字的议论文中好比“画龙点睛”,帮助作者分层次阐述自己的观点,让读者快速了解作者的观点。

  1、确定主题句的位置

  英语议论文的主题句宜设在段首第一句,这是由以下两个因素决定的。1)、主题句出现的位置有三种情况:①在段首,以便读者浏览主题句就可掌握文章的概要,这个位置适用于写提供信息或解释观点的段落;②在段末;③段中(高长梅,20xx)。2)、英语民族的思维特点是常采用路标式(直线式)篇章结构,即主题句在段首。

  2、写出好的主题句

  好的主题句具有以下特点:①有一定的概括性,普遍性而不是罗列具体事实。②句意明确而不是模糊不着边际。③让人有话可写而不是给出无可辩驳的事实。④不以问题的方式出现,也不要同时表达两个以上的观点。笔者要求学生写了以下的主题句:

  1)Staying up late is bad for our health.

  2)The more cars, the better?

  3)There are two reasons why some people are fascinated by Super Girls and two reasons why some dislike them.

  4)Beijing is famous for the Great Wall, the Summer Palace, the Imperial Palace and other places of interest.

  5)a. Tom is a middle school student.

  b. Tom is a hard-working middle school student.

  6)Living in small cities is better than living in big cities.

  然后让学生对照主题句的特点,他们一致认为1)、5)b、6)为好的主题句。在实践和对比中,学生学会了如何写好的主题句,并且运用到议论文写作中,收到较好效果,见以下实例(下段黑体部分是主题句)。

  Everyone lives by selling something. For example, teachers live by selling knowledge, philosophers by selling wisdom and priests by selling spiritual comfort. Though it may be possible to measure the value of material goods in terms of money, it is extremely difficult to calculate the true value of services which people perform for us. The conditions of society are such that skills have to be paid for in the same way that goods are paid for at a shop. Everyone has something to sell.

  由此可见,好的主题句能帮助作者阐明观点,起到提纲挈领的作用。作者围绕段落的中心论点,运用多种方法展开论证,达到以理服人的效果。

  三)、用好连接词和过渡句

  从行文需要出发选用恰当的连接词、过渡句可使整篇文章文句流畅,句意转换自然,同时使表达合乎逻辑,文章结构严谨。倘若一篇议论文的段落里不乏高级词汇和复杂语法结构,但缺少了连接词、过渡句的润色而不能从一个观点自然地过渡到另一个观点,或段落里的各论据(supporting sentence)连接松散,势必削弱论证的效果,就算不上一篇好的议论文。下面分别说明如何有效运用连接词与过渡句。

  1、句与句的连接词

  连接词通常由连词、副词、介词短语和插入语等充当。如何有效使用连接词,使句意连贯、紧凑,以体现文章良好的严密的论证逻辑?

  2.段与段的过渡句

  过渡句帮助作者展示文章的条理和层次。恰当运用过渡句能使表达锦上添花。当文章从一个层次转换到另一个层次,或由一段内容转入另一段内容时需要用过渡句。恰当有效的运用过渡句,效果明显(见下文,题目及要求略,黑体部分为过渡句)。

  Wearing school uniform every day spreads an order over many schools. Is it good or bad for students? Different people, however, have different opinions on this matter.

  Some people say that it has a bad effect on developing students’ personal character. According to them, students are tired of wearing the same clothes every day, which is hard to tell who’s who. Furthermore, the cost of the school uniform is not low as many people think. With the bad quality, it’s not well worth the money.

  However, as a popular saying goes: “Every coin has two sides.” Others argue that it is good for students. In their opinion, wearing school uniform will prevent students from wasting so much money on clothes and the time on catching up with the fashion. In addition, it’s easy for the teachers to recognize the students. There is no doubt that wearing school uniform every day is good for students.

  In short, I firmly support the view that we should wear school uniform.(康珍,20xx)

  上文黑体部分综合体现了恰当、有效运用连接词和过渡句的最佳效果。全文行文流畅、衔接自然、条理清楚,浑然不觉作者是在套用各种连接词和过渡句。因此,非常有必要熟记一些常用典型的议论文过渡句,使议论文结构严谨,论点清楚,行文流畅。

  1)引言段的常用过渡句

  Recently we had a heated discussion on…, Opinions are various among different people.

  Different people have different opinions on the question of …

  They differ greatly in their attitudes towards …

  Different people hold different views/opinions on this matter.

  Although most people think… I believe…

  此类过渡句能迅速引起读者注意,自然而然地引出全文要讨论的话题,或者开门见山地阐明文章的论点。

  2)主体段的常用过渡句

  Some may hold the view that… because… But others have a negative attitude. From their point of view…

  Some people think that… While others believe…

  Some people are for the idea of… because… But some people are against the idea of… because …

  本文所指议论文的主体段可以是一段也可以是两段。通过正确使用过渡句,文章思路清晰,结构清楚,显示作者严谨思维,增强表达效果。

  3)结论段的常用过渡句

  As far as I am concerned, I totally agree with the statement that…

  Therefore, it’s easy to draw the conclusion that…

  As a consequence/result, I firmly support the view that…

  Taking all these factors into consideration, we may reach the conclusion that…

  To sum up/in a word/in conclusion/in short/above all/in general/ generally speaking, I still hold the view that…

  运用过渡句的提示作用进入结论段,作者或是重申论点,或是强调论点,以便加深读者对全文的了解和深刻认识。

  英语议论文范文:

  Should Examination Be Abolished (取消)?

  The examination system has come to be the main theme (主题)of modern education. One should take an examination andsucceed in passing it before he could be admitted, promoted or graduated. As it plays so important a role in the realm of education (教育的领域) it is under much criticism (评论) as to its validity (有效性) . People who are in favour of it try to develop this system more; those who are against it believe that such a system should be abolished. Should examination be abolished? In my opinion it should be.

  Many people think that an examination is the only means to test knowledge, but, in fact, that is not true. A few questions given in an examination could by no means cover the whole field of the subject. Thus those who are able to answer them may be the poorest of the students and yet happen to know just a few points about that subject.

  I'd like to say that, because of the existence of the examination system, students pay so much attention to gaining high marks, that they often forget the chief purpose of education. The so-called clever students devote (贡献) themselves to the study of textbooks only. They, of course, know nothing but the skeleton (梗概) of knowledge. The end and aim of education, however, is to enable students to learn how to live. To do this, students must get themselves to do all kinds of training, physicalas well as mental. The present examination system has discouraged students from making such an attempt.

  Moreover, since the students try so hard to put their lessons into memory in as short a time as possible, psychologically (心理上来看), they soon forget the whole subject as soon as the examination is over. Surely this is one of the greatest wastes ever made in the history of civilization.

  Lastly, in order to get high marks, there is a great temptation (诱惑) for students to cheat (作弊) in an examination. Indeed, such a practice becomes the means to the end. They cheat their teachers, their parents and also themselves. Such a tendency would impair (损害) our moral standards (道德标准) .

  Therefore, I am of the opinion, in conclusion, that the examination system should be abolished.

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