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话说“AND”在句中的不同含义

2008-08-07
话说“AND”在句中的不同含义

话说“AND”在句中的不同含义

作者:湖北葛洲坝高级中学 唐亚兰
 
 

and 是英语中的常用词,在语法中称作连接词或并列连词,通常连接两个并列的语言单位,其汉语意思可译为“和、与、及、同、并、兼”等。有时甚至不必直接译出这些对应的汉语词。如:

1. I like English and mathematics. 我非常喜欢英语和数学。

2. Have you read the novel“War and Peace”? 你看过《战争与和平》这部小说吗?

3. The concept of velocity includes the idea of direction and magnitude.速度的概念包括方向及大小两层意思。

4. The People’s Republic of China and many countries in the world have already established diplomatic relations. 中华人民共和国已同世界上许多国家建立了外交关系。

5. Take your time, and read more correctly. 别急,并读得更准确些。

6. He is a stateman and poet. 他是位政治家兼诗人。

7. Promote physical culture and build up the people’s health. 发展体育运动,增强人民体质。

然而,有时and连接的并不是两个意义上并列的语言单位,其翻译方式是灵活而多变的。正因如此,它常未引起人们的注意,导致阅读和翻译上的`错误。其实,and有着很多细微的内在意义,需要细心斟酌。本文着重将在句中的不同含义作一分析比较。

一. and在连接分句时的不同含义

1. 第二分句与第一分句形成对比,and(=but,in contrast),可译为“但,却,而,反之”等,如:

(1) Yale is clever and Kathy is dull. 耶尔聪明,而凯茜迟钝。

(2) Bobby is secretive and Mike is candid. 博比守口如瓶,而迈克却爽快坦率。

(3) Vera is interested in music and Jay is fond of sports. 维拉对音乐感兴趣,而杰伊爱好体育。

(4) He brought me sandwich, and I helped him do his English homework. 他给我拿三明治,而我帮他做英语作业。

(5) My sister is eighteen and I am fifteen. 我姐姐十八岁,而我十五岁。

(6) Eat to live , and not live to eat. 吃饭是为了活着,但活着不是为了吃饭。

2. 第二句对第一句有惊奇之感,第一句则带有让步语气,前后分句表示转折关系。这种修辞法为的是加强第二句的未预料性,and (=but, yet), 可译为“但是,然而,反而,却”等,如:

(1) Jesse tried hard and he failed. 杰西很卖力,却失败了。

(2) There is a talk, and no action. 尽是空谈,毫无行动。

(3) She talked little, and did much. 她说得少,但干得多。

(4) He is Jack of all trades, and master of none. 他样样都会,但门门不精。

(5) She has misunderstood me, and I wish to do her justice. 尽管她误解了我,但我还要公平对待她。

(6) He was trying to do a good deed, and this is what he got in return.他本来想做好事,却得到这样的回报。

3. 表示动作的先后,第二分句是第一分句连续性行为动作或状态,前后分句为递进关系。如表示同一个主语的先后动作,第二分句可省略主语,and(=then),可译为“后来,然后,接着,又”等,如:

(1) His father locked the door, and went to work. 他父亲锁上门就上班去了。

(2) The back door opened, and a detective came in. 后门开了,然后一个侦探进来。

(3) I told her what happened and left. 我告诉她发生什么事之后,就离开了。

(4) Tina put her face close to mine and smiled. 蒂娜把脸往前凑了凑,接着笑了。

(5) Tony saw me and came and sat at the same table. 托尼见了我,就走过来和我坐到一张桌子前。

4. 第二分句是第一分句的结果,前后分句具有因果关系,and(=so, therefore ,as a result),可译为“因此,所以,于是,就,便”等,如:

(1) He heard a cry for help, and he rushed out of the office . 他听到有人喊救命,就冲出了办公室。

(2) Jack was ill and couldn’t come to school this morning.杰克病了,所以今天早晨不能到校。

(3) The sun was shining , and clothes dried.太阳照耀着,于是衣服就干了。

(4) She missed the school bus and had to take a taxi.她把校车误了,于是不得不打的。

(5) A visitor struck the keys too hard and two of the strings were broken. 一位客人在击琴键时用力过猛,损坏了两根琴弦。

(6) I had too much for my lunch and was sick . 我因午饭吃得过多而感到不舒服。

5. 第一分句(祈使语气)是第二分句(含有情态动词,或用一般现在时表示将来时)的假定条件,前后分句表示条件和结果关系,and(=then),可译为“如果……就会,那么,就”等,如:

(1) Try again and you will succeed. 再试一次,你就会成功。

(2) Work hard and you will pass the exam. 努力学习,你就会通过考试。

(3) Give me one more hour and I’ll be able to finish the test. 再给我一小时,我就能够完成这个试验。

(4) Press the button and the door opens by itself. 按一下按钮,门就会自动打开。

(5) One foot nearer, and you are a dead man. 再走近一步,我就要你的命。

(6) Speak the truth, and you need have no shame. 说老实话,你就不必害羞。

(7) Do that again and I’ll call a policeman! 如果你再那么干,我就会叫警察来。

6. 第二分句是对第一分句的评注,and可省译,如:

(1) Dick often helps me with my study, and that’s very kind of him.迪克常帮助我学习,他很热心。

(2) I’ve had a bowl of rice, and I’m very hungry.我只吃了一碗米饭,现在还很饿。

(3) Shirley can’t go with us , and that’s too bad .雪莉不能同我们一起去,太可惜了。

(4) They disliked Kim and that’s not surprising.他们不喜欢基姆,那是毫不奇怪的。

(5) I have something important to do this afternoon, and you know it.今天下午我有重要事要做,你是知道的。

7. 第二分句与第一分句相似,纯属附加补充,前后分句表示并列关系,and(=similarly or also, in addition),可译为“同时,并且,而且,另外,也,又”等,如:

(1) Mr. Brown is our English teacher, and an expert in translation.布朗先生是我们的英语教师,也是一位翻译专家。

(2) Monkeys can’t swim, and tigers can’t climb trees.猴子不会游泳,老虎不会上树。

(3) Lorna studies very hard, and she often gets up early for reading aloud.洛娜学习非常刻苦,她常早起朗读课文。

(4) Every autumn the leaves fell from the trees, and some of the plants withered .每年秋天,树叶落了,有些植物也枯萎了。

(5) Would you please lend me one of the new magazines? and the latest one.你能帮我借一本新杂志吗?要最新的杂志。

(6) Tony always borrows money from his friends and never pays it back.托尼总是向朋友借钱,并且从来不还。

8. 后一分句对前一分句起强调作用或加强语气,and(=also),可译为“而且”,如:

(1) He did the work, and he did it well.他做了这件事,而且做得好。

(2) You must tell him and tell him at once.你一定要告诉他,而且要马上告诉他。

(3) She speaks English, and speaks very fluently.她讲英语,而且讲得非常流利。

(4) In the world, the teachers and the teachers alone can teach us knowledge. 世界上,老师,只有老师,才能教我们知识。

二. and 在连接两个动词时的不同含义

1. 表示目的,and相当于to的语法作用,但and要比to的语气重,多用于祈使语气中或动词原形后,带有命令、建议、劝告等含义。在这种结构中,and前面常用的动词有come, go, learn , mind, remember, run, send, stay, stop, try ,write, be sure,take care等,如:

(1) Go and help her. 去帮助她。

(2) Try and come early. 尽量早来。

(3) We must mind and arrive there by eight. 我们必须注意八点前到达那里。

(4) Let’s go and tell her the good news. 让我们去告诉她这个好消息。

(5) Come upstairs and see it.到楼上来看看吧。

(6) Jim, come and have something to drink. 吉姆,来喝点什么。

2. 表示动作的同时性,and (=while) , 如:

(1) My nephew is studying and working abroad.我外甥在国外学习同时也工作。

(2) They talked and laughed on their way to school.他们在上学的路上又说又笑。

(3) Last night, the two brothers ate and drank wolfishly . 昨天夜里,这哥俩又大吃大喝。

(4) You should read the text slowly and clearly. 你应当将课文读得又慢又清楚。

三. and 在连接两个形容词时,有时使形容词带有副词性质,如:

1. The wind is nice and cool.风很凉爽。

2. The car is going nice and fast.这辆汽车跑得挺快。

3. It’s nice and warm in the room, while it’s good and cold outside. 屋子里太热,而屋外又太冷。

nice and =very good and =very, quite

4. She was fine and startled at the sight of it.她一见它,就大吃一惊。

fine and=extremely, finely

5. I shall be rare and busy now.我现在太忙了。

rare and=very, rarely

6. He will be fine and joyful. 他非常高兴。

fine and=very, finely

四. and 在连接其他词类时的不同含义

1. 在连接两个名词时,有时使后一名词具有形容词意义,如:

a dance and delight (a delightful dance)愉快的舞会

a meeting and success (a successful meeting)成功的会议

2. 连接数词,and含义为相加,数字中常用and连接百位数和十位数,而千位数和百位数之间可视为and的省略,如:

(1) Two and three make(s) five.二加三等于五

(2) two hundred and sixty-three二百六十三

(3) one thousand and one一千零一

(4) two thousand seven hundred and thirty-one二千七百三十一

3. and用于重复词之间,表示动作的反复、连续和强调,如:

(1) We waited and waited , but nothing happened.我们等了又等,可情况没有变化。

(2) The situation became better and better .形势越来越好。

(3) Ollie dived to the bottom of the lake again and again, looking

for the lost mobile phone. 奥利一再潜到湖底寻找遗失的手机。

(4) There are painters and painters. 画家不可一概而论(有好有坏)。

4. 用于不同字义中间构成短语也表示强调,如:

(1) He worked early and late to earn enough to live.他从早到晚干活才足以维持生活。

(2) Each and every student was given a suit.每个学生都发了一套衣服。

(3) The students came in together and went out twos and threes.学生们一起进来,三三两两出去。

由and连接的并列词组有很多,有些已成为固定词组,不能前后颠倒位置,特别要注意与汉语词序恰好相反的词组,如:back and forth(前后),right and left (左右), flesh and blood (血肉), iron and steel (钢铁),rich and poor(贫富),hot and cold(冷热),twos and threes(三三两两),等等。在这些词组中,有些是同义词构成的,如:first and foremost(首要地),fair and square(公平地),really and truly (真正地),safe and sound(安然无恙),ways and means (方法)等。有些是由反义词或意义相对的词构成的,如:cause and effect (因果),in and out(进出),up and down(上下),day and night(昼夜),here and there(到处)等。

可见,and 的意义主要根据句子的语境和结构而定。正确使用这种并列结构的词组,可使思想表达清楚,重点突出,对句子起强调作用,此外,这些词组读起来琅琅上口,颇具节奏感,能给读者以强烈的艺术感染力。

诚然,and 的用法还很多,尚有待于我们进一步共同探究。文中不妥之处,敬请同行不吝指正。

主要参考书目:

1、A New Advanced English-Chinese Dictionary

2、A New English-Chinese Dictionary

3、A Handbook of English Grammar

4、New Concept English First Things First; Practice and Progress

5、胡仲胤 编著《汉语常用词多种英译法》,广西人民出版社



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